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Chapter-1:Java Fundamentals Part 1.
Title: Mastering Java Interviews: A Comprehensive ReadioBook Guide.

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Question: What is Java?
Answer: Java is a high-level, class-based, object-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.

Question: What are the key features of Java?
Answer: Java has several key features, including:
- Object-Oriented: Everything in Java is treated as an object which makes the program easier to understand and manage.

- Platform-Independent: Java works on the WORA (Write Once, Run Anywhere) principle as it is compiled to bytecode which is platform-independent.
- Simple: Java is designed to be easy to learn and use.
It eliminates the complexity of C++ by removing the explicit pointer concept, operator overloading etc.
- Secure: Java provides a secure platform for developing and running applications.
It includes a security manager that allows users to run untrusted bytecode in a "sandboxed" environment.
- Robust: Java focuses on early error checking, runtime checking, and garbage collection, which helps in building robust applications.

- Multithreaded: Java’s multithreading capabilities are integrated into the Java language, rather than being part of the operating system, which makes Java applications highly responsive.

- Distributed: Java has a set of APIs that make it easy to use file systems, display documents, and open web pages.
- High Performance: Java achieves high performance through the use of bytecode and the Just-In-Time compiler.

- Architecture-Neutral: Java's compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file format, making the compiled code executable on many processors.
Question: Explain the Java Runtime Environment (JRE).

Answer: The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is a set of software tools that provides the runtime environment necessary to execute Java applications and applets.
It includes the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), core libraries, and other additional components to run applications and applets written in Java. The JRE allows end-users to run Java applications on their systems and is often installed as a part of the Java Development Kit (JDK).
Question: What is the Java Development Kit (JDK)?
Answer: The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a software development environment used for developing Java applications and applets.
It includes the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), an interpreter/loader (Java), a compiler (javac), an archiver (jar), a documentation generator (Javadoc), and other tools needed for Java development. It is the official development package for Java programming, provided by Oracle Corporation.

Question: Describe the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).

Answer: The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is an abstract machine that enables a computer to run a Java program. It is a part of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) and provides the runtime environment in which Java bytecode can be executed.
JVMs are available for many hardware and software platforms, and they translate the compiled Java bytecode into machine code for the specific hardware and operating system.

Question: What are the differences between JDK, JRE, and JVM?
- JDK (Java Development Kit): This is the full software development kit, containing the JRE, an interpreter/loader (Java), a compiler (javac), an archiver (jar), a documentation
generator (Javadoc), and other tools needed for Java development.
- JRE (Java Runtime Environment): This contains the JVM, core libraries, and other additional components to run applications and applets written in Java.
It does not contain the development tools like the compiler or debugger.
- JVM (Java Virtual Machine): This is an abstract machine that provides the runtime environment for Java bytecode to be executed.
It is part of the JRE, and it is platform-dependent.

Question: What is Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation?
Answer: Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation is a runtime process where the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) converts Java bytecode into machine code just before it is executed.
This results in a performance boost as it allows the code to run directly on the hardware, instead of being interpreted by the JVM, leading to faster execution times. The JIT compiler compiles the bytecode into machine code and stores it in memory, so if the same code is executed again, it can reuse the previously compiled machine code, further enhancing performance.

Question: How does garbage collection work in Java?
Answer: Garbage collection in Java is a process by which the JVM reclaims memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use, making that memory available for new objects.
The JVM automatically handles garbage collection, and it does so in the following steps:
- Mark: The garbage collector identifies all the objects that are reachable from the root nodes (variables on the stack, static variables, etc.).
All the objects that can be reached are marked as alive.
- Sweep: All the objects that are not marked (i.e., not reachable) are considered garbage and are marked for deletion.

- Compact: This step is optional and involves moving all the remaining objects to one end of the memory heap, which helps in preventing memory fragmentation and makes it easier to allocate memory for new objects.

Question: What are the different types of garbage collectors in Java?
Answer: Java provides several types of garbage collectors, each designed for specific types of applications and system configurations.
The main types include:
- Serial Garbage Collector: Uses a single thread for garbage collection; suitable for single-threaded applications.

- Parallel Garbage Collector (Throughput Collector): Uses multiple threads for garbage collection; aimed at maximizing throughput.

- CMS (Concurrent Mark Sweep) Collector: Designed to minimize application pause times by doing most of the garbage collection work concurrently with the application threads.

- G1 (Garbage First) Collector: Aims to provide a balanced solution with high throughput and low pause times, dividing the heap into regions and managing them independently.

Question: Explain the concept of class in Java.

Answer: In Java, a class is a blueprint from which individual objects are created. It is a template that defines the state and behavior common to all objects of a certain kind.
A class contains fields (variables) to hold the state and methods to represent the behavior of the object. Objects are instances of classes, and they encapsulate data for the object and methods to manipulate that data. Classes in Java are defined using the "class" keyword, and they can include variables, methods, constructors, and nested classes/interfaces.
Question: What is an object in Java?
Answer: An object in Java is a runtime instance of a class, which encapsulates both state and behavior. State is represented by fields (attributes), and behavior is represented by methods (functions).
Objects are created using the 'new' keyword followed by a call to a constructor method. They allow for the organization of code in a modular and reusable manner.

Question: What is inheritance?
Answer: Inheritance is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming that allows a class (the subclass or derived class) to inherit fields and methods from another class (the superclass or base class).
This mechanism promotes code reuse and establishes a natural hierarchy between classes.

Question: Explain polymorphism in Java.
Answer: Polymorphism in Java is the ability of an object to take on multiple forms.
It allows for a single interface to represent different underlying forms (data types). The two main types of polymorphism in Java are compile-time (method overloading and operator overloading) and runtime polymorphism (method overriding).

Question: What is encapsulation?
Answer: Encapsulation is one of the four fundamental OOP concepts, and it is the technique of making the fields in a class private and providing access to them via public methods.
It is a protective barrier that keeps the data safe within the object and prevents outside code from directly accessing it.

Question: Describe abstraction in Java.

Answer: Abstraction in Java is the concept of hiding the complex reality while exposing only the necessary parts.
It reduces programming complexity by hiding all but the relevant data about an object in order to reduce complexity and increase efficiency.

Question: What is the difference between method overloading and method overriding?
Answer: Method overloading occurs when two or more methods in the same class have the same method name but different parameters (different type, number, or both).
Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides a specific implementation for a method that is already defined in its superclass.

Question: Can we override static methods in Java?
Answer: No, static methods cannot be overridden in Java.
While you can define a method in a subclass with the same signature as a static method in its superclass, this is not method overriding. Instead, it is known as method hiding because the subclass’s static method hides the superclass’s static method.

Question: Explain the final keyword in Java.
Answer: The final keyword in Java is used to restrict the user. It can be applied to variables, methods, and classes. When a variable is declared with final, its value cannot be altered once assigned.
When a method is declared as final, it cannot be overridden by subclasses. When a class is declared as final, it cannot be subclassed.

Question: What is the use of the super keyword in Java?
Answer: The super keyword in Java is a reference variable used to refer to the immediate parent class object.
It is used to invoke the parent class’s methods, access the parent class’s fields, and call the parent class’s constructor.

Question: What is the use of the this keyword in Java?
Answer: The this keyword in Java is a reference variable referring to the current object.
It is used to refer to the current object’s fields, call the current object’s methods, pass the current object as a parameter to another method, and invoke the current object’s constructor. It helps in eliminating the confusion between class attributes and parameters with the same name.

Question: What is an interface in Java?
Answer: An interface in Java is a blueprint of a class that defines a set of methods without any implementation. Classes that implement the interface must provide an implementation for all of its methods.
Interfaces are used to achieve abstraction, as they allow the separation of what a class should do from how it achieves what it does.

Question: Can an interface in Java contain a constructor?
Answer: No, interfaces in Java cannot have constructors.
Constructors are used to initialize the state of an object, and since interfaces cannot have state (they do not have instance variables), they do not need constructors.

Question: What is an abstract class?
Answer: An abstract class in Java is a class that cannot be instantiated on its own and is meant to be subclassed.
It can have abstract methods (methods without a body) as well as concrete methods (methods with a body). Abstract classes are used as a base for other classes, allowing for code reuse while also enforcing a certain structure in the derived classes.

Question: When would you use an interface vs an abstract class?
Answer: You would use an interface when you want to define a contract for classes to implement without providing any implementation details.
An interface is appropriate when you want to specify a common set of methods that multiple classes should have. On the other hand, you would use an abstract class when you want to provide some common implementation while also enforcing a certain structure through abstract methods. Abstract classes allow for code reuse, while interfaces allow for multiple inheritance.

Question: Explain the concept of packages in Java.

Answer: Packages in Java are a way to organize related classes and interfaces into a single directory structure. This helps in managing the code better, avoiding class name conflicts, and providing controlled access.
A package can be declared by using the 'package' keyword at the beginning of a Java file. Classes within the same package can access each other's package-private members (members with no access modifier).

Question: What is access control in Java?
Answer: Access control in Java is a mechanism to restrict access to certain parts of your program from other parts of your program as well as from other programs.
It helps in encapsulating the implementation details of a class and exposing only what is necessary. Java provides various access modifiers to set the visibility level of classes, methods, and variables.

Question: Explain the four access modifiers in Java.
Answer: In Java, there are four access modifiers:
- Private: The member is accessible only within its own class.
- Default (Package-Private): The member is accessible only within its own package.
This is the default if no access modifier is specified.
- Protected: The member is accessible within its own package and by subclasses.
- Public: The member is accessible from any other class.

These access modifiers help in providing a layer of security to the implementation details of the classes and allow for controlled access.

Question: What is a constructor in Java?
Answer: A constructor in Java is a special method used to initialize an object. It has the same name as the class and does not have a return type.
Constructors are called when an object of the class is created, and they can take parameters to initialize the object's attributes with specific values.

Question: Can we have multiple constructors in a class?
Answer: Yes, a class in Java can have multiple constructors, each with a different parameter list. This is known as constructor overloading.
Overloaded constructors provide different ways to instantiate an object, allowing for flexibility in initialization.

Question: What is a copy constructor in Java?
Answer: A copy constructor in Java is a type of constructor that creates a new object as a copy of an existing object. It takes a parameter of the same type as the class.
The copy constructor is used to create an exact copy of an object, duplicating its state.

Question: What is a default constructor?
Answer: A default constructor is a constructor that takes no parameters.
In Java, if no explicit constructor is defined for a class, the Java compiler automatically provides a default constructor. This default constructor initializes instance variables with default values. If a class has at least one explicit constructor defined, the Java compiler does not provide a default constructor, and if a no-argument constructor is needed, it must be explicitly defined.

Question: Explain the concept of method overloading.

Answer: Method overloading in Java occurs when two or more methods in the same class have the same name but different parameters (different type, number, or both).
The return type of the overloaded methods can be the same or different, but it is not sufficient for method overloading by itself. The compiler differentiates these methods based on their method signatures.

Question: What is the difference between a local variable and an instance variable?
Answer: Local variables are declared inside a method, constructor, or block and have a scope limited to that method, constructor, or block.
They are created when the method, constructor, or block is entered, and they are destroyed when it is exited. Instance variables, on the other hand, are declared inside a class but outside any method, constructor, or block. They are associated with an instance of the class, and their scope extends to the entire class. Unlike local variables, instance variables have default values if not explicitly initialized.

Question: What is the default value of a local variable?
Answer: Local variables in Java do not have a default value. They must be explicitly initialized before they are used.
Attempting to use an uninitialized local variable will result in a compile-time error.

Question: What is the default value of an object reference declared as an instance variable?
Answer: The default value of an object reference declared as an instance variable in Java is null.

Question: Can we declare a class as static?
Answer: In Java, we cannot declare a top-level class as static. However, nested classes (a class within another class) can be declared as static.
A static nested class is associated with its outer class and can access its static data members and static methods.

Question: What is a static method?
Answer: A static method belongs to the class rather than to any specific instance of the class.
It can be called without creating an instance of the class. Static methods can access static variables and static data methods directly. They cannot access instance variables and methods.

Question: What is a static block?
Answer: A static block, also known as a static initialization block, is a block of code inside a class that gets executed when the class is loaded into the memory. It is used for initializing static variables.
Static blocks are executed before the main method or any other static methods and even before any constructors.

Question: Can we have static methods in an interface?
Answer: Yes, from Java 8 onwards, we can have static methods in an interface.
These methods must have a body, and they are not inherited in the implementing class.

Question: What is a static variable?
Answer: A static variable is a variable that is shared among all instances of a class.
It belongs to the class rather than to any specific instance and is initialized only once, at the start of the execution. A copy of a static variable is present only once in the class, regardless of how many objects are created.

Question: How do you handle exceptions in Java?
Answer: Exceptions in Java are handled using a combination of try, catch, finally, throw, and throws keywords.
The try block encloses the code that might throw an exception, the catch block catches and handles the exception, and the finally block contains the code that is always executed after the try and catch blocks, regardless of whether an exception was thrown or caught. The throw keyword is used to manually throw an exception, and the throws keyword is used in the method signature to declare an exception.

Question: What is a try-catch block?
Answer: A try-catch block in Java is a mechanism to handle exceptions.
The "try" block contains a segment of code that might generate an exception, while the "catch" block contains the code that handles that exception. When an exception occurs within the try block, the control is transferred to the corresponding catch block, if it exists.

Question: Explain the finally block in Java.

Answer: The finally block in Java is used in conjunction with a try-catch block, and it contains code that is always executed, regardless of whether an exception was thrown or caught.
This block is typically used for cleanup activities, such as closing files or releasing resources.

Question: What is the throw keyword in Java?
Answer: The throw keyword in Java is used to explicitly throw an exception from a method or a block of code.
When an exception is thrown using the throw keyword, the normal flow of execution is interrupted, and the runtime system looks for the nearest catch block that can handle the type of exception thrown.

Question: What is the throws keyword in Java?
Answer: The throws keyword in Java is used in the method signature to declare that a method might throw a particular type of exception.
This helps to propagate the exception to the calling method, making it responsible for handling the exception.

Question: What are checked and unchecked exceptions?
Answer: In Java, checked exceptions are exceptions that are checked at compile time.
The compiler ensures that a method dealing with checked exceptions either handles them using a try-catch block or declares them using the throws keyword. Unchecked exceptions, on the other hand, are not checked at compile time, and they usually indicate programming errors. RuntimeException and its subclasses are unchecked exceptions.

Question: What is the difference between final, finally, and finalize?
Answer: "final" is a keyword used to apply restrictions on a class, method, or variable.
A final class can't be inherited, a final method can't be overridden, and a final variable can't be reassigned. "finally" is a block that follows a try-catch block and is executed regardless of whether an exception was caught. "finalize" is a method used to perform cleanup operations before an object is garbage collected.

Question: Can we have multiple catch blocks for a single try block?
Answer: Yes, we can have multiple catch blocks for a single try block, and each catch block can handle a specific type of exception.
The catch blocks should be ordered from most specific to most general, as the catch blocks are evaluated in order.

Question: What is exception propagation?
Answer: Exception propagation in Java refers to the process by which an exception is forwarded from the method where it occurred up through the call stack.
If a method doesn't handle an exception, the method terminates, and the exception is passed to the calling method. This process continues until the exception is handled or until it reaches the main method, potentially causing the program to terminate.

Question: What is the difference between throw and throws?
Answer: The "throw" keyword is used to explicitly throw an exception from a method or a block of code, whereas "throws" is used in a method signature to declare that a method might throw a
particular type of exception. "throw" is used to initiate an exception, and "throws" is used to indicate that an exception might occur and should be handled by the calling method.

Question: What is the OutOfMemoryError in Java?
Answer: The OutOfMemoryError in Java is a subclass of the Error class and it occurs when the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) runs out of memory and is unable to allocate memory for objects.
This can happen due to memory leaks, insufficient heap size, or trying to create too large an object or array.

Question: Explain the StackOverflowError in Java.

Answer: The StackOverflowError in Java is thrown when a method call could not be performed because the application’s stack space was exhausted.
This is typically the result of a method repeatedly calling itself, creating an infinite loop and eventually depleting the stack.

Question: What is the difference between error and exception?
Answer: In Java, both errors and exceptions are subclasses of Throwable, but they are used for different purposes.
Errors are used for serious, unrecoverable conditions that should not be caught by the application, such as OutOfMemoryError or StackOverflowError. Exceptions, on the other hand, are conditions that a program should try to catch, and they indicate issues that a program might want to handle.

Question: Explain multi-threading in Java.

Answer: Multi-threading in Java is a feature that allows the concurrent execution of two or more threads. A thread is a lightweight subprocess, and multi-threading is a popular technique to improve the performance of programs.
Java provides built-in support for multi-threaded programming, with features to create, synchronize, and manage threads effectively.

Question: What is the difference between a process and a thread?
Answer: A process is an independent execution unit that has its own memory space, and it comprises one or more threads.
A thread, on the other hand, is the smallest execution unit within a process, and multiple threads within a process share the same memory space. While processes are isolated from each other, threads can communicate more easily since they share the same address space.

Question: What are the different states of a thread?
Answer: A thread can be in one of the following states:
- New: The thread is created but not yet started.
- Runnable: The thread is ready to run and is waiting for CPU time.

- Blocked: The thread is blocked and waiting for a monitor lock to enter or reenter a synchronized block/method.
- Waiting: The thread is waiting indefinitely for another thread to perform a particular action.

- Timed Waiting: The thread is waiting for another thread to perform a specific action for up to a specified waiting time.
- Terminated: The thread has exited.

Question: What is thread synchronization?
Answer: Thread synchronization is a mechanism that ensures that two or more concurrent threads do not simultaneously execute code segments that access shared resources or perform related tasks.
It is used to control the access of multiple threads to shared resources.

Question: What is the use of the synchronized keyword?
Answer: The synchronized keyword in Java is used to control the access of multiple threads to a particular resource.
A synchronized method or block ensures that only one thread at a time can access the resource, preventing thread interference and memory consistency errors.

Question: What is the difference between wait() and sleep()?
Answer: The wait() method is used to release the lock on an object and make the current thread wait until another thread invokes the notify() or notifyAll() method for that object.
The sleep() method, on the other hand, keeps the lock for the duration of the sleep and makes the current thread sleep for a specified period of time. While wait() is intended for inter-thread communication, sleep() is used to introduce pause on execution.

Question: Explain the deadlock situation in multi-threading.

Answer: Deadlock in multi-threading is a situation where two or more threads are blocked forever, each waiting for the other to release a lock.
It occurs when a set of threads are blocked because each thread is holding a lock on one resource and waiting for another resource acquired by some other thread. Common conditions that lead to a deadlock include mutual exclusion, hold and wait, no preemption, and circular wait.

Question: How do you prevent a deadlock?
Answer: Deadlocks can be prevented by employing various strategies, such as:
- Lock Ordering: Define a global order for acquiring locks and ensure that all threads acquire and release locks in this order.

- Lock Timeout: Set a timeout for lock acquisition, and release all acquired locks if the lock isn't acquired within the timeout period.

- Deadlock Detection and Recovery: Use algorithms to detect deadlocks and take actions (such as killing a thread, rolling back transactions, etc.) to recover from them.

- Avoiding Hold and Wait: Ensure that a thread requests all required resources at once, avoiding the situation where it holds onto some resources while waiting for others.

Question: What is thread safety?
Answer: Thread safety is a concept in concurrent programming that ensures that a class or method operates correctly when accessed by multiple threads simultaneously.
A thread-safe class or method ensures consistency and integrity of shared resources even when it’s accessed by multiple threads, preventing issues like data corruption, inconsistencies, or unexpected behaviors.

Question: What is the volatile keyword in Java?
Answer: The `volatile` keyword in Java is a modifier used with variables, declaring them as being stored in main memory.
Every read and write operation on a volatile variable is performed directly from and to the main memory, which ensures that changes made by one thread to a volatile variable are immediately visible to all other threads. It also prevents the compiler from reordering code involving volatile variables, providing a form of synchronization.

Question: What is a thread pool?
Answer: A thread pool is a collection of pre-instantiated, reusable threads that can be used to perform short, concurrent tasks.
Using a thread pool helps to reduce the overhead associated with creating and destroying threads for short-lived tasks. Threads in a thread pool remain alive after finishing a task and can be reused for other tasks, improving the system’s performance, especially under high load.

Question: What is the executor framework?
Answer: The executor framework is a set of high-level APIs provided by Java for managing and controlling thread execution in concurrent Java applications.
Introduced in Java 5, the framework provides classes and interfaces to handle thread pools, asynchronous tasks, and scheduled task execution. It allows developers to manage threads efficiently, improving performance and simplifying concurrent programming.

Question: Explain the Java memory model.

Answer: The Java memory model defines how threads interact through memory in a concurrent Java application.
It outlines the rules and guarantees for accessing and updating variables in a multi-threaded environment, ensuring consistency and predictability. The model addresses issues such as visibility, atomicity, ordering, and happens-before relationships, providing a foundation for writing correct and efficient concurrent code.

Question: What is the difference between Stack and Heap memory?
Answer: Stack memory is used for execution of a thread and it holds method call frames, local variables, and control flow data. Each thread has its own stack memory.
On the other hand, heap memory is used for dynamic memory allocation, storing objects and their instance variables, and it is shared across threads. While stack memory is automatically allocated and deallocated as methods are called and return, heap memory requires explicit allocation and deallocation, typically managed by the garbage collector.

Question: What is a memory leak?
Answer: A memory leak occurs when a computer program improperly manages memory allocations and deallocations, resulting in the consumption of increasing amounts of memory over time.
In Java, memory leaks can occur when objects are no longer needed but remain referenced by other objects, preventing the garbage collector from reclaiming their memory. Identifying and fixing memory leaks is crucial to maintaining application performance and preventing out-of-memory errors.

Question: How is memory managed in Java?
Answer: Memory management in Java is primarily handled by the garbage collector, which automatically reclaims memory occupied by unreachable objects.
Java memory is divided into different areas, including heap, stack, and method area, each serving specific purposes. The garbage collector operates primarily on the heap, identifying and removing objects that are no longer accessible. Developers can influence memory management through practices like object pooling, minimizing object creation, and using weak references.

Question: What are the different types of memory areas allocated by JVM?
Answer: The JVM allocates memory for various purposes, and the major areas include:

- Heap Memory: Used for dynamic memory allocation, storing objects and arrays.

- Stack Memory: Used for method execution, storing frames, local variables, and control flow.
- Method Area: Stores class structure, field data, method data, and runtime constant pool.

- Native Method Stack: Used for executing native methods (methods written in languages other than Java).
- PC Registers: Holds the address of the current execution instruction for each thread.

- Direct Memory (optional): Memory allocated outside the JVM, managed by the application.

Question: What is class loading in Java?
Answer: Class loading in Java is the process by which the JVM loads class files into memory for execution.
This process includes locating the binary data for a class, transforming it into a method area data structure, and performing various verification checks to ensure the integrity and safety of the code. Class loading is performed dynamically, at runtime, which provides flexibility and extensibility to Java applications.

Question: What is a classloader?
Answer: A classloader in Java is a part of the JVM that is responsible for dynamically loading classes into memory at runtime.
Classloaders follow a delegation model, wherein a classloader delegates the task of loading a class to its parent classloader before attempting to load the class itself. This ensures that classes from the standard Java libraries are given precedence over user-defined classes with the same name.

Question: What are the types of classloaders?
Answer: In Java, there are three main types of classloaders:

- Bootstrap Classloader: It is responsible for loading the core Java API classes present in the JAVA_HOME/jre/lib directory.

- Extension Classloader: It loads classes that are an extension of the standard core Java classes, present in the JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/ext directory or any other directory specified by the java.ext.dirs system property.

- System/Application Classloader: It loads classes from the system classpath, which includes the class files in the current working directory or specified in the classpath environment variable.

Question: Explain the life cycle of a servlet.

Answer: The life cycle of a servlet is managed by the servlet container and includes the following stages:

- Loading and Instantiation: The servlet class is loaded into memory and an instance is created.

- Initialization: The servlet instance is initialized by calling its init() method, where initialization parameters can be accessed and other startup operations can be performed.

- Service: The servlet’s service() method is called to handle client requests. Depending on the type of request, the service() method may call doGet(), doPost(), or other methods to process the request.

- Destruction: When the servlet is no longer needed or the web application is shut down, the servlet container calls the servlet’s destroy() method, allowing it to release resources and perform cleanup operations.

- Unloading: The servlet class is unloaded from memory.

Between the service and destruction stages, the servlet remains in memory, ready to handle additional requests, making the service stage the longest phase of the servlet life cycle.

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